½ | ע
̬ ڽ ۺ
ǰλã > > ̬ >

2013-10-31 23:16|鿴:9649|:0|:С

:ǿеĵ糡ǿȴﵽ򳬹ʱ¿ĵǿȴӶŵ硣

 

ǿеĵ糡ǿȴﵽ򳬹ʱ¿ĵǿȴӶŵ硣ƶһξ뼴תơڴеĵλܱתʽܣ⣬ȡ

 

ѧУϣ ἐέѦæŦɦ energeia ָһӹ۲쵽ΪijһϵͳϵͳڹΪһξ룬ǵͬһij赲Ȼ

 

һͬһ㲻лԭʧһһڹʵλƣSIУĵλǽЩлϰʹλǧߡʱǧЩҲǹĵλ

 

AϵͳԽɼ򵥵תƽ䵽BϵͳΪʵͬȻǽתƶתʹBϵͳ仯ΪAϵͳBϵͳ˹⹦ֵЧͬһһľڽϵͳ˵AϵͳԽתƣ䣩Bϵͳշϲͬģһϵͳܽײת±ײһξ˶ΪܡܵתԽȿԽɷתƣֱӽϵͳӵײתƶܡ

 

ԲñΪʡܻǵܵķʽһϵͳС໥õһƶһξ루һƶƶµλ˵ıˡȻӱܱλϣڵijƻķʽӻصԭ״ֽ̬иıλöͳΪλܡһ򵥵Ӿһ嵽ijһ߶ҪĹλܡ

 

κʽתһʽ˵ƶͬλʱλܿתɶܡڷܵʽʱתЧʿԺܸתµӵIJȻܵĻתһ̬ʱͬѧڶģܻתЧʵơ

 

תĹУֲ䣬ԭϵͳڸϵͳתƣijϵͳʧضһϵͳõʧʧȥͻôƽ⣬ı䡣غĶɣʮͳӦκһϵͳŵضغɲʱıõȻ

 

Ȼһϵͳʱı䣬ֵܻΪοϵͬһڷɻij˿ͣڷɻ䶯Ϊ㣻˵ȴΪ㣬ҲԵȥȽϡ

 

ʷ

 

ӢġenergyһԴϣἐέѦæŦɦenergeiaֿ״γڹԪǰʿµƷС

 

ijڸظ¡ĵvis viva뷨һٶȵƽvis vivaغġΪ˽ĦٶȼĵΪڵ˶ɣ뷨Ͱˡţһ£Ȼֹһͺűձܡ1807꣬˹ǵһʹȡvis viva˹-˹򡤿1829ˡܡ1853꣬William Rankineλʡһʣֻһ˼ꡣ

 

ķһоЩɺϲѧĶУٳ³򡤿˹Լǡ˹߶ء˹ڻѧ̽ϵĿٷչҲ˿˹صѧʽԼJoef StefanķܵĶɡ

 

1961꣬¡ڼѧԺһѧΪĿγУµķʽĸ

 

һʵǾһĿǰΪֹƿ֪ȻĶɣ֪Χûκε⣬ҾĿǰ֪׼ȷġɱΪغ㡣˵һضdz֮ΪȻ״̬˸ֱ仯󣬲ı䡣һĸΪһѧԭ˵һֵһЩ¼ʱı䡣κ̻߾һֵʵǿȶϵͳһЩֵϵͳһЩ仯֮ͬȥЩֵֵᷢһʼʱͬġ

 

ѧ

 

1918꿪ʼ֪غĹʱ䣬ƽƶԳõѧϵȻҲ˵֮غΪ޷ͬʱ˲ɣŵض

 

е

 

ĸԼתƣڽͺԤ󲿷ֵȻõġתƷͨʵСģתģijЩģתDzģΪͳϣʲƶΪϸܶȵʽƶСռ

 

ĸǹ㷺Ĵѧ֮У

 

ڻѧӦ

 

ڻѧ棬ԭӡӻӾۼģʵһʡΪѧӦǰЩṹϵı仯Ҳͻӻ١Щ͸ڻӦתƣˣܻڻСڷӦ˵״̬ԭʼ״̬dz֮Ϊȣ֮ΪȡѧӦҲһᷢǿ˷һϰϰ֮ΪܣEݲֲeE/kTҲǷڸ¶ T £ڻڻܵĸʣѧӦٶصġӦʶ¶ȵĹϵ֮Ϊ˹̡⻯ѧӦҪĻܣǿܵʽڵġ

 

ѧӦ

 

ѧ棬κΧȦСĻ壩ҪġһУһϸлͷչˣDZΪ̼ˮࣩ͵ʵȷӵĽṹϸںкʱͷ˺ʡ˵ĴлתָһDZά³´лһƽÿ12500kJԻл80ߡ˵80ģƽУʱһ100ߵĵݵ൱80ߵ1.2510080һֻгӵļԲǧߵĹʣӣһ˻Բ1000أάһСʱĻ£ʴ½300ңһĻ150ѾǺܴˡĴл˽ϵͳϵṩǶʹĸо

 

ѧӦ

 

ѧ棬½Ʈơɽɽ͵Ȼ󣬶Ըڵڲתͣ硢ꡢѩ׵硢̫ڵɵתĽ

 

ѧӦ

 

ѧǡ٤߱󣬶תкǣ̫ɸתʹġЩʣͨӣΪתɸ壨ǣڶȣֻں˾۱䷴ӦԪأҪ⣩ʱƣеתһʼըBig Bang˸ֿõλܣȻһĴʱͻᱻͷţת಻ͬ͵綯ܣܣ һתǴγɿʼ̫ĺ˾۱ͷһɴըλܡۣʱΪռɢȴ̫죬޷ȫںϳɽصԪأ˵һִλܵΪ˾۱ͷһںϹ̽ᱻʱƵĸ¸ѹЩںϵʱת̫⡣̫̫֮ٴδΪλܣ˵ˮΪ̫ɢȻ󱻴浽ɽУڴˮͷź󣬿ֻ򷢵

 

֮

 

Ҳһ˵̫Ӿ̨磬̨緢ڴҲȶů󣬵̫ȼ֮ͻȻͷܣ˳ļҿƶγ̨硣̫ҲᱻֲãڹתΪѧܣ統̼ˮĻתɸĻ̼ˮ֬࣬͵ʵȡֲҲڹõʱͷΪ壬ͷŴ̼ˮ֬͵ʵ ЩתըһЩм¼ͷλܣʱҲ಻ͬķʽ档Ще¼˵κһת̬ܡ

 

͹ʵIJ

 

Ȼ͹ճеʹΪͬʣѧҺ͹ʦȴὫֿڿѧĶϣʲǺȫָͬתʱʣ߿˵ǹִʱʣһˮϵˮֻͨˮ糧Ὣˮλתɶܣתɵܡÿλʱĵܱ֮Ϊ繦ʡͬڸ̵ʱͨɸĹʡ

 

 

еĶʱһʴӾֹٵһĹתţѧ˹̹Щ﷢һ벻ĽһʹΪʱҲ㡣Ϊֹʹھֹʱʶ߱ĴСȣ

 

E = mc2

 

mΪ cΪʱ EΪֹ 磬оӵʱһӵľֹˣûĹԹӣڹϵͳԾӵԷغ㣨ейأ෴أࣩĹɶԵIJ෴ӡȻЩӦϵͳܺͲı䡣 УӦ-Ϊ붯ʱеܶͨΪţӦƹ㣩ΪԴеţԴһ㡣 dzڡ׼ȷ˵ÿʵӵйԺĵȼΪҲһʽҲԺйء Ӻۿƾȶڵģ΢ۿκοɹ۲ڲӡ

 

غ

 

غ㶨ɡɣֻܴһʽΪһʽ޷ƾղغʱƽƶԳԵóѧۣŵضNoether's theorem غ㶨ɣܱ仯 ˶൱оݡʱƽƶԳԣо󲿷󶼿Զʱ仯֮⣬뽫졢췢ֿʵDzܵġ Ϊʱcanonical conjugateѧDZ˲ȷԣҪ޵ʱﶨ徫ȷֵDzܵġֲȷԲӦúغ졣׼ȷ˵ṩԭϿԱͲѧֵ ѧHamiltoniannʾκʱ䷶ΧеIJȷԻ 㡣ɭIJⲻ׼ԭdzƣѧϵͬΪH tھѧнԲǹ֮

 

Ӧ

 

ءغ㶨ɡҲ˵۲һϵͳӼΪʱ޹أϵͳԶһ

 

һϵͳԱϸֳɲͬͣԲͬࡣȷ˵ʱλܴӶֿȽϷ㡣ҲʱλܡܡܺʽԷġЩඨܻصܾͿɲֶܺͲλɡ

 

תҲкܶʽ,磺advectionⲿֻһСۡ

 

УΪһֱʱĵйءУDZȻȱLorentz scalarʱȴάеɷ֮һ仰˵ڿռѭǹ̶䣬ڲ֤ʱͿռѭ£ȻDz䡣

 

ת

 

ΪҪغ㣬ֻҪܱ壬ֲҲغ㡣ϵͳеתǹӾǻеǼ򵥵ԽдɣE=W. ûתʱEתܺϣWϵͳĹձķʽΪE=W+Q.Qϵͳӵȣ һϵͳҪõʧкܶ෽ʽһѧϵͳУɼֺвͬѧܵʵϵͳϽʱӵķӻеܣЩܶԱӵķ̣ǶɱڡE"energy addition term E"УEʾκʽڲֻϵͳıЩҲԱȷ˵ĶܵϵͳлǼ뼤ϵͳУڴ˲ۼ𡣹ʿɽ̸дɣE=W+Q+EEϵͳĹӵȡ ɴλתɶٻλܡΪغ㡣͵ķϵͳӻ٣˳ʼյضͬ ɱʾɣEpi + Eki = EpF + EKf Ep=mghͣ˵ʽԼ򻯳Ep+Ek=Etotal

 

˶

 

ѧУΪһغڸѧʽǷdzõԡЩʽΪĹĽ ׶غThe Hamiltonian ʱһϵͳá׶ٺʾǸӻdzϵͳԿԴ˱ʾ֮ЩʽͷԵѧԵƴ

 

The Lagrangian

 

һصĹǡȹ׶ҿ˶̡һھѧбȴձʹڽ ɶܺλܵIJڷDZصϵͳУĦϵͳȹ׶ʹϸ㡣

 

ŵضɣNoether's Theorem

 

ŵأһָκξп΢ֵĶԳ˶ϵͳһӦغ㶨ɡ ŵضִͱַ൱ҪһĹߡչ׶ٺɳķ̵֪ŵٶɲڲյϵͳ˵һԳԵɢϵͳûӦغ㶨ɡ

 

ѧ

 

 

Ǵϵͳָϵͳ΢ܺͣҺλܣ˵ӽṹṹνṹ΢˶ĶйءѧҪܵı仯ֵܵľֵֵֻܵѧɾ

 

ѧ

 

ѧڶɣȫתȣ֮ͳѧóĽۡѧһɲغһתʽѧһɵѹȵתϵͳУ΢С仯ԱʾΪdE=TdS-PdV ұߵһתϵͳܣΪ¶ȣTأSĺϵͳڼȹУػӣұ仯dSֵڶʾϵͳġ,PѹVΪѹϵͳʱı䣬dVǸֵ Ȼʽӳѧغķʵ൱ģʽԣ˵ѧܡܺȣҵʽһ¶йءձĵһغ㣩DzҪ¶ȵġ ʱʾdE=Q+Wϸ˵DzϹ涨ģΪҲQW޷ѧʽʹ

 

ֶ

 

һеļгеڶܺλܼ以תʽļг񵴣ϵͳеڶܺλܼ以תһлλȫȫתɶܣȫȫתλܡһѭУֲܻڶλܼ䡣˳ΪֶһɶȵϵͳЧɶС ˽⡱ءкܴİ, ءڸϵͳҶȵķһϵͳɶʱϵͳһµܽףܽ׺;ɵܽȫһƽָСõɶȣΪǡ¡ɡвΪѧڶɡ

 

 

λƣҲһʽ

λƣҲһʽ

ϹʽʾWͬC ߻֣е£ ໥ġ磬һײһ֧Ϊο꣬ûж˻ӶΪο꣬Ͷˡ

 

ѧ

 

ѧǿԶӣǸʱ΢йϵѦ̷ӵӻϵͳ˿ɽ䶨ѧвķѦ̷̿ݷϵͳIJ˷ھϵͳеĽDzģ߼ܽ׺ӵĸӺκеĵŲԣѦ̷̵Ľõ̬Ƶйأʿ˷EhͣhΪʿ˳ΪƵʣһᡣˣԵŲЩ̬Ϊӻǹ

 

ͼ

 

ͼ

 

 

Ļ 嶼ԴɫֲҪ̫ķߣһЩҪĻѧʹܹ֮ɳ뷱ֳһһӦʳӵĻȡ15002000ǧ68MJ߶Ϊ̼ˮ֬ǣC6H12O6͸ͣC57H110O6壨mitochondriaʳӻᱻɶ̼ˮ

 

C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 + 6H2O
 
C57H110O6 + 81.5O2 57CO2 + 55H2O
 

һЩᱻΪADPATPת

 

ADP + HPO42− ATP + H2O
 

̼ˮ֬ʣµĻѧܻᱻתȣATPΪһ֡ҡˮʱֽһЩѧΪлÿл̽׶УһЩѧܱתȣֻһСݵĻѧġ һ100׵ľĶΪ4kJ һ150̧2׵Ϊ3kJ һһʳȡ68MJ ʾԵЧ۵ʹõõѧܻߣ󲿷ݵеܹЧʹáһɳ彫תȣҪĿΪл֯򡣸ѧڶɣ壩ͷŵ磺ΪҪʣһضطͷŸȣ硣򵥵ͷűȸߵЧǸӵ̬ϵͳҵʺϵ̬λǼû취ﵽΪڴл̵ÿ׶ζͷųܣЩƶЩڶֲлĻѧdz֮Ϊ̬ѧʳĵĵһԼ124.7Pg/a̼йã64.3Pg/a52%̼Ϊɫֲл;̼ȵ໥ת

 

ʾͼѧ

 

ʾͼѧ

 

 

ΪĹûܹ׼ȷزֻܹһϵͳijһ״̬תΪһ״̬ʱһ²ܱġʼһǿѡģһԸļ⡣

 

 

ͨǸݿѧԭõ룬䣬¶ȣʱ䣬ɺ͵ һϲʹõļⶨ¶ȼƲ¶ȻòȼƲǿȵѧ

 

λ

 

ѧʷ಻ͬĵλʾergscalories񣬲Ĺʱ׼֤λǽ˽λkilowatt hour kWhBritish thermal unit BtuϴλһkWhͬ3.6򽹶һBtuͬ 1055

 

ܶ

 

ܶʾضϵͳռÿλ֮õȼ϶ԣÿλǺõIJһЩУȽȼϺ͵Чʣ;иߵıܣspecific energyλʹҺ̬ʽܶȽϵ͡

 

¶ȣ

 

¶ȣ

 

ʽ

 

heatһʽһλܣһڶܡѧУʽ塣Щ

 

ܣthermal energyڴеܱΪheat

 

ѧ

 

 

ܣŷ

 

 

 

 

 

е

 

 

ЩʽԱΪࣺܺλܡƵʽǶܺλܵĻγɡ

 

⼸ʽתЩתЧʿɴ100ЩСܰЩͬתĻΪ任transducer

 

ϵļ֪ʽһȻֻҪѧҷijЩΥغµʽᱻ롣dark energy͸ȫ沢ӿٶȵļ

 

ھѧУλܺͶ֮ģλΪһλõĺλٶйءλλƶضIJο꣺ͨΪϣ½ϣһ㡣ѧͼþѧеʽΪܺλ֡ǴģҲ򻯵ķࡣ

 

FeynmanָЩܺλܵĸȡڳ߶ȵĴС磬۵Ķܺλܿ˵DzܺͶܵġѧλҲǸ۸ϸļʾΪԭӺԭӵĶܺλܵܺͬ͡Ҳںλܺʽǿǵֻ漰һֳ߶ȣô߶ȵԲţǵ漰˲ͬ߶ʱĦʹ޹۵Ĺת΢۵ܣξ׷

 

ת

 

ijʽͨ͸ߵĸתһʽܰѻѧתɵܣˮܰλתɶܲ͸תɵܡͬģڻѧըһκ̵ܶʱﻯѧλתɶܺܡӰҲһӡӰߵĶΪλΪֵ͵ĶΪֵλΪ㡣ӰûκĦ֮תģӰڽһֱҡȥ

 

һΪ㣨mv=0 ʾv=0ܱϵͳУE=mһΪ㣨mv=0 ʾv=0ܱϵͳУ/2ʹӡغ㶨֪ʵĹϵ

 

ʽE =m, ǰ˹̹۵ĸоֹֹ뾲ֹ֮ĹϵУƵĹʽҲJ. J. Thomson 1881, Henri Poincare 1900, Friedrich Hasenohrl 1904 Ԥ֪Mass-energy equivalence#History ʿܱƻתᱻƻ֮ȻκʺתУʺʧȻͨ˵Ǻܴģһתһʽȣ䣩ͷż ~תһʽ = 21ֵ TNT,ͬں˷Ӧͺ෴ģһλһС˴󲿷ϵͳʧʧʧdz תʣתɾֹӣڸĺʹá

 

תõĹѧҪ⡣ڴȻתԷֳࣺһǿģһDzġѧDzġ磬ͬλʽ֮תǿģǰᵽӰ˶һȵIJʱһֵȫָɿõʱDzġ

 

ݻԽԽڲ״̬ȻʽȼۡȼDzռ˵һּ˵ѧڶɣΪһϵͳػʱŶӣ򣬵شﵽֵʱеЧѾȫתΪܣ¶ȴﵽƽ⡣״̬ΪȼšҲûκοά˶ڡ



Դڻ
ݷadmin@hdtyy.com


¼Ƭ

¼Ƭ

| ϵ | Ȩ | ˽ | |
Ȩ
Copyright © 2011-2020 All Rights Reserved.

ض